Shade tolerant primrose flowers are plants that are grown under trees or shrubs. Primrose flower can look rather different. If you plant primrose flowers of different species and varieties, then your garden will become a picturesque kaleidoscope of flower height, color, shape, and inflorescence.
Advantages of Growing Primrose Flowers in the Garden
1. Primrose flowers are unpretentious, winter hardy perennials.
2. They bloom in early spring, before the garden is filled with flowers.
3. By selecting different varieties of primrose flowers, you can extend their bloom until August.
4. When forcing, primrose flowers can decorate the house in the winter; then, they can be planted in the garden where they will also grow and bloom well.
5. Primrose flowers have fantastic varieties of colors, sizes, and shapes.
Depending on their appearance, primrose flowers are divided into umbellate, polster, capitate, layered, candelabrum, campanulaceous, and evening primrose flowers.
There are about 30 species to breed in the garden.
Let’s discuss a few popular species that can often be found in the gardens.
Spring Primrose Flowers
They are grown in the open shade as wild spring primrose flowers grow in the woods. The height of the plants is 4-8 inches (10-20 cm). These are plants with wrinkled, hairy, dark green dentate leaves that grow from the rosette root. They belong to the umbellate primrose flowers. Spring primrose flowers bloom in early spring, with white, light-yellow, red, and purple flowers. They are 2-4 cm in diameter and are placed on thin short stalks.
Primrose Flowers Auricula
Primrose flowers auricula grow in mountainous areas. They are sometimes called ‘mountain primroses’. These plants bloom after ordinary primrose flowers. They bloom with bright yellow flowers, which are gathered in an umbel.
Asian Primrose Flowers, or Candelabrum Primrose Flowers
Most often, these primrose flowers are biennials, but they can also be perrenials. Primrose flowers denticulata with lacerated leaf edges originated from the Himalayas. The flowers can come in various colors and are gathered in large inflorescences on thick stalks. They can grow up to 2 ft (60 cm) in height.
Based on their natural species, there have been many hybrid forms created, which amaze spectators with their brightness and beauty.
Evening Primrose Flowers
Wild species grow in North America. In the evening, evening primrose flowers open up their yellow flowers after sunset. In many places, evening primrose flowers are invasive plants. Before you plant them in your garden, you need to investigate if they are aggressive in a particular area. Evening primrose flowers are easy to grow by seeds or by bush division. They sprout well at a temperature of 20 C within 3 weeks. Evening primrose flowers are drought-resistant plants that prefer sunny places. In order to prevent their spread throughout the garden, you need to pick off deflorate flowers to prevent seed ripening. All the parts of evening primrose flowers are edible. They are used in salads and also as a garnish. The seeds can be added when baking bread too.
How do you Plant Primrose Flowers?
Primrose flowers are propagated by dividing the bush or by seeds. The division of the bush is performed every 3-4 years in the early spring, in the late summer, or after flowering. If you don’t divide primrose flowers for a long time, they become less winter-hardy. In addition, their shrubs branch out and age, while the flowers become smaller.
The root system of primrose flowers is not deep and is located at a depth of 8-12 inches (20-30 cm).
The soil for primrose flowers needs to be drained, moist, and with no stagnant water. Usually, primrose flowers are grown in fertile and loose soil. They do not like heavy clay or sandy soil. Forest species of primrose species are grown in garden soil, fertilized with compost or other organic matter. Rock or mountain primrose flowers are grown in acidic soils with pH 5-7, with moderate organic matter. Common primrose flowers with blue flowers prefer slightly acidic soil.
If you propagate primrose flowers through seeds, the seeds should be planted in the same autumn, as when they were collected. Otherwise, the seeds will quickly lose their germinative power. The distance between the plants should be 6-8 inches (15-20 cm). The seeds germinate in the light. The seedlings are covered by fallen leaves for the winter. The layer thickness must be 4 inches (10 cm).
Pests Diseases of Primrose Flowers
During unfavorable conditions, they can suffer from frost and a lack of nutrients. When there is excessive moisture, gray mold and fungus may appear. In this case, the sore spots are sprinkled with powdered charcoal or ashes, and sprayed with Bordeaux mixture. The mycelium is sprayed with a copper-containing solution.
Spider mites and aphids can damage primrose flowers too. The affected areas are flushed with water and treated with a spray from insecticidal soap, but should be done in the morning. The solution should be semi-transparent, with a slight touch of milky color. After drying, the primrose flowers are flushed with water again to wash the solution off. Primrose flowers are rarely affected by diseases, as the pests of primrose flowers are usually controlled by the predatory insects that live in the garden.