Many plants, especially fruit trees, come under the attack of garden pests, which can transmit diseases. If you don’t control for pests in your garden, the harvest of fruit crops will die and so your labor will be useless. That’s why gardeners have been collecting information about various garden pests and have tried to find the measures of preventing them through trials and errors.
Autumn examination of fruit trees is necessary for pest control of the garden in due time. Many pests spend the winter on the trees in cocoons. That’s why detailed autumn examinations of the bark, crown, and separate branches of the fruit trees results in revealing pests and helps with pest control of the garden.
Apple moth is a widespread pest.
To reveal the effects on the trees by the apple moth, examine the bark of 2-year sprouts which are 0.5 m long.
Presences of corselets of apple moth ovipositors indicate infection of the tree. Apple moth corselets covering the ovipositor are the female moth’s thickened secretions. She lays the eggs of the same color as the bark, making them hard to notice.
In the spring, when the temperature rises above 60,8F, brown-grey colored butterflies, that have fine cross ornament on the upper wings, begin to fly in the evening. Their flight coincides with the blooming of the apple trees. Apple moth females lay eggs on the top layer of the leaves and sometimes inside the ovary of the apples facing to the south. In the summer, they lay eggs on the fruit.
The eggs are white and tiny, about 1 mm. The eggs mature depending on the air temperature during the first 7-12 days. Young caterpillars find the fruits,= make passages in them, and feed up on the pulp and the seeds. A disturbed fruit loses the capability to acquire nourishing juices and falls off. A caterpillar then moves over to another fruit. One caterpillar can destroy 2 fruits. This lasts for 25-30 days, then pupation occurs. Pupae develop for 14-18 days in the spring and 12-16 days in the summer. Apple moths damage not only apples but other fruit trees as well: pears, plums, apricots, etc.
That’s why it’s so important not to let this pest propagate in the garden and use all the methods of pest control.
Oriental Fruit Moth
This is a brown colored butterfly, which is 14 mm across with its wings spread.
In the spring, when the air temperature is above 59F, oriental fruit moths begin flying. Their eggs can be found on the bottom side of young leaves and even young sprouts of trees such as peaches, plums, cherries, and pears.
A female oriental fruit moth lays eggs on the top side of the leaf of apple and quince trees. In a week, white caterpillars with dark heads appear and start going deep into green sprouts, which wither little by little. During 2 weeks of intensive feeding on sprouts, a caterpillar grows up to 12 mm and turns pink when itcrawls out of the sprout, settles in the bark crack or under the tree bark and pupates. The oriental fruit moth stays in the pupa stage for 1-2 weeks. Then, the cycle reoccurs. With the temperature under 46,4F, oriental fruit moth doesn’t develop. During 1 season, the oriental fruit moth may repeat reproduction cycles up to 7 times.
The effects on the fruit by the oriental fruit moth are not visible until the fruit is cut.
Pest control of the garden
1. With the oriental fruit moth, you need to cut withering sprouts, collect the damaged apples, and burn them.
2. To combat moths, various insect traps are used. It can be a pheromone insect trap or a photometric light insect trap.
3. In the evening, photometric light insect traps eradicate caught pests. During the mass flying of the moths, pheromone insect traps are used for catching and exterminating the males. Pheromone insect traps are set before the peaches start to bloom. They eradicate adult moths, but don’t affect eggs and caterpillars. If these measures of pest control are applied effectively in the spring, then the oriental fruit moth won’t appear during the summer.
4. There are chemical measures of pest control in your garden, but they are not effective enough. Chemical remedies negativelyinfluence the environmental ecology and the quality of the fruit grown in the garden.
5. There are insect-predators which can help pest control in the garden. There’s also a predator specifically for the oriental fruit moth. This is the wasp-braconidae Macrocentrus ancylivorus. It destroys the oriental fruit moth and the apple moth. Wasp females lay the eggs into the larva of oriental fruit moth. Developing from an egg, a wasp larva eats the larva of the pests. Tachinid flies and wasps of Megarhyssa family are an effective measure of combating the apple moth. They act the same as braconidae wasps. These insects lay eggs either on the caterpillar body or piercing the caterpillar’s body, and laying them inside. Tachinids lay eggs when the prey is approaching. When pest controlling the garden, it’s better to attract insects and use light insect traps, such as pheromone insect traps rather than spraying the fruit harvest with herbicides and polluting the surrounding world with poisonous substances.